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Submitted by , posted on 09 August 2001



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8,000 Butterflies at 100 frames per second - no assembly, no hardcoding, no hacks.

These are three shots from a test of the particle system in my experimental engine (currently named Pandora). The butterflies are completely dynamic and are independently animated - no precalculation. When the butterflies flap their wings they climb higher, and when the don't flap they glide down. The butterflies are all different sizes, and smaller butterflies are faster than larger ones. There's also a simple physics model (a force field) that corrals the butterflies into a donut-shape.

Each butterfly is a separate C++ object, and each uses virtual functions to implement its behavior (they derive from a CParticle base class). Before people complain about the performance penalties of virtual functions, I've extensively benchmarked the virtual function overhead here and it's practically negligible. The particles are moderately memory-inefficient, but that can be cleaned up quite a bit with a custom allocator. There are exactly 0 lines of assembly code used in the particle system code - the particles themselves are straight C++, and the vector math routines underneath them are hybrid C/C++.

The geometry for each butterfly is essentially a square folded down the diagonal, and is built with 8 vertices and 4 triangles (4 verts and 2 triangles per side). The current version renders 8,000 butterflies at 95-100 frames a second on my development machine (a P4-1.7ghz + GeForce 3), or approximately 800,000 particles per second (3.2 million triangles per second). It doesn't use any GeForce 3 or Pentium 4 specific features (no vertex shaders, SSE, etc.) though it does use some NVidia-specific OpenGL extensions (mainly NV_vertex_array_range).

I wrote this demo just to prove that you can get excellent performance out of a C++/OpenGL engine without any sort of hacking or assembly optimization - as long as you keep your code efficient and benchmark every one of your changes, you can usually avoid any performance bottlenecks. I probably won't be releasing the full source code to the demo (as that would require releasing huge chunks of my still-in-development engine) but I can write up a quick overview of the techniques I used if enough people are interested.

-Austin Appleby
aappleby@austin.rr.com



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